Isolation Center: Isolation center can be defined as an independent healthcare facility operating separately from other hospital resources, which specifically equipped for the treatment of infectious diseases. There are various facilities in place including a specific entrance for the patient, triage area for separating suspected and confirmed patient, a diagnostic facility and dedicated laboratory for carrying out tests, a isolation patient treatment room/ward, medical staff area decontamination area, removal of waste disposal area, laundry, kitchen, all of which help to ensure the patient can be treated safely and securely.
Isolation Unit: Isolation Unit within an Isolation Center is a patient care unit where patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 should be cared for in a clinical environment that provides safe, secure, and appropriate care with optimal infection containment, prevention, and control procedures. Isolation unit is located in high-risk zone, which includes patient treatment area, diagnostic facility, and ancillary facility for patient care.
Isolation Room: An Isolation room is a patient treatment area that aims to control the airflow in the room so that it can ensures cross-infection of other people within an Isolation center.
Triage area: a critical point of area separating persons suspected of having COVID-19 coronavirus from persons without COVID-19. Triage is performed either before arrival or upon arrival at the Isolation.
Anteroom: A small room leading from a corridor into an isolation room to provide a controlled environment and barrier against entry/exit of contaminated air into/out of the isolation room when the door is opened. Each anteroom must have self-closing doors and sufficient area to allow for the donning or removal of personal protective equipment or clothing.
High Risk Zone: Based on the risk of virus transmission, the high-risk zone is the area for patients who either have or are suspected to have coronavirus disease. Medical Staffs need to don (put on) PPE before entering into the high-risk zone. Low Risk Zone: Based on the risk of virus transmission, the low-risk zone is medical staff-only area which is for doctors, medical staff, cleaning staff, water and sanitation, and logistics staff. Medical Staffs need to doff (put off) PPE before entering into the high-risk zone.
High Acuity patient: Patients, who have confirmed COVID-19 positive and are severely ill, receive higher acuity ratings. High-acuity patients often present challenging medical conditions, and they often have significant, unpredictable needs. High-acuity patients need frequent observation to ensure that they improve or remain stable. As a result, high-acuity treatment room must maintain higher staffing levels. Design Guideline for COVID-19 Isolation Center | Version 1.0 Institute of Architects Bangladesh | 2 Low

Acuity patient: Patients, who have confirmed COVID-19 positive but NOT severely ill, receive low acuity ratings. Low acuity patients are stable patients with more predictable outcomes, who need less frequent nursing observation than high acuity patient. As a result, low-acuity treatment room need lower staffing levels.

Personal protective equipment (PPE): Specialized clothing or equipment is worn to protect the health care worker or any other person from infection, including the use of particulate respirators, eye protection, gowns and gloves. In case of blood borne or airborne infections, these will include face protection, goggles and mask or face shield, gloves, gown or coverall, head cover and rubber boots.

Negative pressure ventilation: It is a mechanical ventilation system where the exhaust airflow rate is greater than the supply airflow rate. The room will be at a lower pressure than the surrounding areas, which keeps air from flowing out of the room and into adjacent rooms or areas.

Natural ventilation: Natural ventilation depends natural forces (e.g. winds and thermal buoyancy force due to indoor and outdoor air density differences) to drive outdoor air into a building or a room, and distributes the air within the building or room through purpose-built, building envelope openings. Purpose-built openings include windows, doors, solar chimneys, wind towers and trickle ventilators.

Hybrid ventilation: Hybrid ventilation (mixed-mode) relies on natural driving forces to provide the desired air flow rate. When natural ventilation alone is not suitable, exhaust fans (with adequate pre-testing and planning) can be installed to increase ventilation rates in rooms having patients with airborne infection.

High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter: A filter that is capable of removing 99.97 per cent of particles 0.3 μm in diameter. Filters may be used in ventilation systems to remove particles from the air, or in personal respirators to filter air before it is inhaled by the person wearing the respirator. The use of HEPA filters in ventilation systems requires expertise in installation and maintenance.

Mucosa: The Mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs. It consists of one or more layers of epithelial cells overlying a layer of loose connective tissue. Mucous membranes line many tracts and structures of the body, including the mouth, nose, eyelids, trachea (windpipe) and lungs, stomach and intestines, and the ureters, urethra, and urinary bladder.

Conjunctiva: The conjunctiva is the clear, thin membrane that covers part of the front surface of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelids. The primary functions of the conjunctiva are Keeping the front surface of the eye moist and lubricated, Keeping the inner surface of the eyelids moist and lubricated so they open and close easily without friction or causing eye irritation, and Protecting the eye from dust, debris and infection-causing microorganisms.

En-suite: En suite is a bath room that has a toilet and comes with a shower and/or bath that is directly connected to a bedroom. Design


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Chartier, Y., & Pessoa-Silva, C. (2009). Natural ventilation for infection control in health-care
settings: World Health Organization.